A plaque remaining from the Big Apple Night Club at West 135th Street and Seventh Avenue in Harlem.

Above, a 1934 plaque from the Big Apple Night Club at West 135th Street and Seventh Avenue in Harlem. Discarded as trash in 2006.

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Entry from December 29, 2006
Condensed Milk (Borden’s Eagle Brand)

Condensed milk was patented in 1856 by Gail Borden, Jr. Borden took out the water and added sugar to condense the milk. Borden’s Eagle Brand condensed milk quickly became popular for seamen and for soldiers fighting in the Civil War.

Borden conducted early milk experiments in Texas, but he’d moved back to New York when his product was manufactured. Nevertheless, Texas still takes some credit.


Eagle Family Foods
Facts About EAGLE BRAND®
Eagle Brand® was introduced in 1856 by Gail Borden to combat food poisoning and other illnesses related to lack of refrigeration and preservation techniques. The Civil War brought Eagle Brand® the recognition required to make it a household name. The military needed milk that would keep well and Borden’s product filled that need. Additionally, Eagle Brand® was credited with significantly lowering the infant mortality rate in North America. Gail Borden’s discovery provided milk that would remain safe and wholesome — at that time, an important contribution to the nourishment of infants and children.

Wikipedia: Condensed milk
Condensed milk is cow’s milk from which water has been removed and to which sugar has been added, yielding a very thick, sweet product that can last for years without refrigeration. Also known as sweetened condensed milk, the two terms have become synonymous; though there have been unsweetened condensed milk products, today these are uncommon. Condensed milk is used in numerous dessert dishes in many countries.

A related product is evaporated milk, which has undergone a more complex process and which is not sweetened. 

Background
Condensed milk was first developed in the United States in 1856 by Gail Borden, Jr. in reaction to difficulties in storing milk for more than a few hours. Prior to his development, milk could only be kept fresh for a few days and so was only available in the immediate vicinity of a cow. While returning from a trip to England in 1851, Borden was devastated by the death of several children, apparently due to poor milk from shipboard cows. With less than a year of schooling and following in a wake of failures both of his own and others, Borden was inspired by the vacuum pan he had seen used by Shakers to condense fruit juice and was at last able to reduce milk without scorching or curdling it. Even then, his first two factories failed and only the third, in Wassaic, New York, produced a usable milk derivative that was long-lasting and needed no refrigeration.

Probably of equal importance for the future of milk was Borden’s requirements for farmers who wanted to sell him raw milk: They were required to wash udders before milking, keep barns swept clean, and scald and dry their strainers morning and night. By 1858 Borden’s milk, sold as Eagle Brand, had gained a reputation for purity, durability and economy.

Wikipedia: Gail Borden
Gail Borden, Jr ( 9 November 1801 - 11 January 1874 ) was the U.S. inventor of condensed milk 1856. 

(Oxford English Dictionary)
condensed milk: milk reduced to a thick viscid consistence by evaporation.
1863 O. W. NORTON Army Lett. (1903) 177 We buy condensed milk of the sutlers. 1868 Brit. Pat. 3928 4 In preserving milk it is preferred first to condense it..and then to charge the condensed milk with gas in a vessel completely air-tight.

2 July 1853, Scientific American, pg. 333:
Preserved Milk, Coffee, Tea, and other Extracts.
Gail Borden, Jr. formerly of Texas ("But now of New York” is in another reprint—ed.), but now of this city, to whom was granted a Council Medal at the World’s Fair in 1851, for his celebrated meat biscuit, has taken measures to secure a patent for some exceedingly valuable improvements in preparing and concentrating sweet milk in such a manner that incipient decomposition is completely prevented, and a concentrated extract produced either in cakes, or in a more fluid state, which will keep sweet in any climate for months and perhaps for years. We have kept a quantity of this milk for three months, and although it has stood in a tolerably warm place, it is as sweet to day as when we received it.

4 November 1854, Scientific American, pg. 64:
The plan of Gail Borden, Jr. of Texas, (inventor of the Meat Biscuit,) for preserving milk, we consider far superior to this. It consists in evaporating the water in the milk, in a pan excluded from the atmosphere, and using a small quantity of sugar as a preservative. By this plan pure solid milk can be obtained, which can be carried about in very small bulk, from one end of the world to the other.

30 August 1856, Scientific American, pg. 405:
Concentrating Sweet Milk.—A patent granted to Gail Borden, Jr., of Brooklyn, N.Y., for concentrating sweet milk in vacuo, embraces the discovery made by him, that to render concentrated sweet milk capable of long keeping and solution in water, it must be kept out of contact with the atmosphere during concentration, to prevent incipient decomposition. Milk concentrated by his process requires no antiseptic, like other concentrated milks; it is perfectly soluble in water, and it has tested with great satisfaction in voyages across the Atlantic. Pure sweet milk can be concentrated in the rural districts, and sent to cities in tin canisters for sale and use. It is certainly a useful and valuable invention, enabling masters of vessels to use sweet milk on the longest voyages, and furnishing the dwellers in cities with pure sweet milk, not liable to become sour—as is the case with city milk. Numerous experiments during the past three years were made by Mr. B. before his process was perfected; in these he was eminently assisted by advice and the use of apparatus by Mr. John H. Currie, Pharmaceutest and Chemist, at his laboratory in this city.

15 August 1857, Scientific American, pg. 387:
Concentrated Milk.
Gail Borden Jr.’s patent process for concentrating and preserving milk has recently been put in successful operation in Burrville, Litchfield Co., Conn., and milk reduced to about two ninths its original volume is now sold in our city at about 32 cents per quart. It is becoming quite popular on steamships, and may be recommended to all who are sensitive on the subject of swill-fed milk in cities. Its taste is that of ordinary scalded milk, and the process of preparation consists in keeping it from the air and concentrating it as rapidly as possible by boiling in vacuo at a temperature of less than 130 degrees Fah. In using it, water is simply poured in until the fluid is restored to its former condition. From personal experience we can recommend it as a better article for family use than most of the milk sold in this country, and equal to the best. Under ordinary conditions this milk will keep a little longer than common milk, but there are two ways in which it can be preserved for months and probably for years. It may be hermetically sealed in cans, or may be combined in due proportion, with pulverized sugar, the sugar being less than required by ordinary tastes as sweetening for tea or coffee. A third method, that of surrounding it with ice, will preserve it for several weeks. There is a prejudice against manufactured, milk, but this article is simply pure country milk reduced in bulk by the loss of some 75 or 80 per cent of its water. We can vouch for the integrity of Mr. Borden, having known him for many years.

1 October 1857, Circular, pg. 146:
CONCENTRATED MILK.—Gail Borden jr. has set at work, at Winsted, Conn., an apparatus for concentrating and preserving milk. The milk received from the farmers is first cooled in ice-water, then placed in a large iron boiler, and subjected to a heat of 120 to 150 degrees by steam, the evaporation being assisted by exhausting the air by air-pumps;. Buy this process 500 quarts of milk are reduced to 125 quarts in an hour and a half. The liquid thrown off by the evaporation, is clear like water—has a slightly unpleasant taste—in no way resembling milk, and its smell is slightly offensive. It is considered, that the concentrated article is rendered purer by the process, to say nothing of its other advantages. The residuum is like a thick paste, which may be converted into milk by replacing three parts of pure water. The cream will not rise on this condensed milk, and if hermetically sealed it will keep perfectly sweet for an indefinite time. Mr. Borden’s sample are said to be of unexceptionable quality, and he is believed to have perfected a highly useful discovery, to be added to those he has heretofore made in the way of preserving human food.

(Trademark)
Word Mark BORDEN’S
Goods and Services (EXPIRED) IC 029. US 046. G & S: BUTTER AND CHEESE. FIRST USE: 18570000. FIRST USE IN COMMERCE: 18570000
Mark Drawing Code (1) TYPED DRAWING
Design Search Code
Serial Number 71022064
Filing Date September 13, 1906
Current Filing Basis 1A
Original Filing Basis 1A
Registration Number 0058578
Registration Date December 18, 1906
Owner (REGISTRANT) BORDEN’S CONDENSED MILK CO. CORPORATION NEW JERSEY JERSEY CITY NEW JERSEY
Assignment Recorded ASSIGNMENT RECORDED
Type of Mark TRADEMARK
Register PRINCIPAL
Renewal 3RD RENEWAL 19661218
Live/Dead Indicator DEAD

(Trademark)
Word Mark GAIL BORDEN EAGLE BRAND
Goods and Services (CANCELLED) IC 029. US 046. G & S: Dairy Products-Namely, Milk and Cream, Either Whole or Skimmed, Sterilized, Homogenized, Condensed, Evaporated, Concentrated or Desiccated, With or Without Other Ingredients [; Malted Milk; Ice Cream; Food Beverage Extracts-Namely, Coffee, With or Without Added Ingredients-Namely, Milk and Sugar; Candy-Namely, Caramels; Caramel Paste ]. FIRST USE: 18650101. FIRST USE IN COMMERCE: 18650101
Mark Drawing Code (3) DESIGN PLUS WORDS, LETTERS, AND/OR NUMBERS
Design Search Code 03.15.01 - Eagles
03.15.19 - Birds or bats in flight or with outspread wings
24.09.07 - Advertising, banners; Banners
Serial Number 71129487
Filing Date March 10, 1920
Current Filing Basis 1A
Original Filing Basis 1A
Registration Number 0137955
Registration Date December 14, 1920
Owner (REGISTRANT) Borden Company, The CORPORATION NEW JERSEY NO. 108 HUDSON STREET New York NEW YORK
(LAST LISTED OWNER) Borden Inc. UNKNOWN Columbus OHIO
Assignment Recorded ASSIGNMENT RECORDED
Prior Registrations 0007836;0010512;0023604;0032639;0035690;0035691;0040692;0064722;0078578; 0092038;0096861;0099194;0101127;0112162;AND OTHERS
Disclaimer No claim being made to the word “Brand” apart from the mark shown in the drawing.
Type of Mark TRADEMARK
Register PRINCIPAL
Renewal 3RD RENEWAL 19801214
Live/Dead Indicator DEAD
Cancellation Date December 22, 2001

Posted by Barry Popik
Texas (Lone Star State Dictionary) • (0) Comments • Friday, December 29, 2006 • Permalink