A plaque remaining from the Big Apple Night Club at West 135th Street and Seventh Avenue in Harlem.

Above, a 1934 plaque from the Big Apple Night Club at West 135th Street and Seventh Avenue in Harlem. Discarded as trash in 2006.

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Entry from March 18, 2008
Texas 1015 Onion & Texas SpringSweet Onion

Entry in progress—B.P.



H-E-B Food Dictionary
Texas 1015 Onions: Just in time for spring! Sweet and juicy Texas 1015 onions have arrived at H-E-B and are perfect for sandwiches, salads, salsas and more. And, because they have low levels of pyruvate, they can be sliced, diced and cooked without shedding a tear.
Tips for selecting: Look for Texas 1015 onions with shiny, thin skins and tight, dry necks.
Tips for storing: Because these onions have a high water content, they require more care when storing. Keep them in a dry, well-ventilated area, either in a single layer or in netting or hosiery with a knot separating each onion.
Nutritional benefits: Texas sweet onions not only taste great, they’re good for you, too. Onions have naturally occurring compounds that have been reported to lower blood pressure and reduce cholesterol levels in the blood. And, they’re low in calories and are a good source of vitamin C.
Recipes: Tomato and Sweet Onion Salad

Texas Cooperative Extension
Sweet Talk About Texas SpringSweet and Texas 1015 SuperSweet Onions
Onions sweet enough that they don’t bite back? And mild enough to keep tear ducts from springing a leak? You bet! Texas SpringSweet and Texas 1015 SuperSweet Onions, the first fresh onions harvested each year, have become favorites among consumers nationwide for their distinctively mild, juicy and sweet-tasting characteristics.

What gives these onions such a sweet disposition? Researchers point to South Texas’ sunny, semi-tropical climate and rich, fertile soil. Additionally, Texas SpringSweet Onions (the umbrella name for all South Texas onion varieties shipped from March to June) also contain very little pyruvate, the chemical that causes tears and strong flavor. Further, the 1015 SuperSweet Onion, a SpringSweet variety, has become a Lone Star State legend for its even milder, juicier characteristics.

Texas 1015 SuperSweet Onions - The Sweetest In Its Class

The 1015 SuperSweet Onion, named after its recommended planting date of October 15, was introduced by the South Texas onion industry in 1985 after 10 years of research. It is the sweetest, mildest onion anywhere in the world.

Texas 1015 SuperSweets are available from mid-April through May and are predominantly single-centered, making them ideal for large, uniform-size onion rings. They also grow to softball-size proportions, often weighing in at one pound or more each and measuring over four inches in diameter. The optimum-size eating onion - in terms of mildness and sweetness - measures three to four inches in diameter and weighs 14 to 16 ounces.

Great Taste and Healthful, Too

Texas sweet onions not only taste great, they’re good for you, too. Onions have naturally occurring compounds that have been reported to lower blood pressure and reduce cholesterol levels in the blood. They also contain quercetin, an antioxidant that has been found to inhibit the growth of some cancer cells. Another healthful bonus: Onions are low in calories and are a good source of vitamin C.

Storage and Selection Tips

Look for Texas SpringSweet and 1015 SuperSweet Onions with shiny, thin skins and tight, dry necks. Because these onions have a high water content, they require more care when storing. Keep them in a dry, well-ventilated area, either in a single layer or in netting or hosiery with a knot separating each onion. When stored properly, Texas SpringSweet and 1015 SuperSweet Onions will last up to 30 days from harvest. Be sure to store cut onions covered in the refrigerator.

Texas Cooperative Extension
About Texas Sweet Onions. . .
What makes Texas SpringSweet and Texas 1015 SuperSweet Onions so unique?

Texas SpringSweet and Texas 1015 SuperSweet Onions are thin-skinned, sweet and juicy. And they have low levels of the tear-causing chemical pyruvate, so slicing, dicing, cooking and eating Texas sweet onions is all the more enjoyable.

How big are Texas SpringSweet and Texas 1015 SuperSweet Onions?

Texas SpringSweet and Texas 1015 SuperSweet Onions come in a variety of sizes. The smallest range from 1 inch to 2 1/4 inches in diameter, and the heftiest regularly check in at 3 3/4 inches or larger in diameter.

How should these onions be stored?

Hold your Texas sweet onions at 55-58 degrees F and keep dry. To preserve the moist tastefulness of these bulbs, drop them individually in a pair of pantyhose, tying a knot between each sweet onion. Hanging the nylon onion strands allows for sufficient ventilation and a longer-lasting, tastier sweet onion.

What type of plant is the onion?

The onion is part of the lily family. Onion kin include asparagus, tulips and yuccas.

Besides its anti-carcinogen properties, how else do Texas sweet onions benefit us?

History’s earliest records show man using onions as a treatment for artery disease, arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, high blood pressure, dysentery and the common cold. We know now that compounds in onions can function as anti-coagulants, cholesterol modifiers and antibiotics.

Texas Cooperative Extension
Lasso the Sweet Taste of Texas
Nobody Knows Onions Like Texans Know Onions

For bigger and better sweet onions, look to the Lone Star State. We breed these plump, juicy bulbs to taste as sweet as a Texas sunrise and cause no fears of tears. The first fresh onions of the season, Texas SpringSweet Onions are available from mid-March until June, while Texas 1015 SuperSweet Onions make an appearance from mid-April to June.

What makes our onion so darned sweet? Well, besides the sunny climate of South Texas’ Rio Grande Valley and the gentle nature of the folks who grow these beautiful bulbs, we had some real scientific help.

Horticulturists from Texas A&M University found a way to reduce the amount of pyruvate in our onions. That’s the natural chemical in all onions that brings tears to the eyes and sharpness to the tongue. Once we said goodbye to most of that, what remained was the very best of that mild, sweet Texas onion flavor.

We did all this because Texans don’t take onion lightly and - as we hope you agree - good food is nothing to cry over.

Jumbo 1015s - Sweet and Smooth as a Texas Waltz

It took about 10 years and a million dollars in research to come up with a giant onion with the sweetest flavor in the country. Texas 1015 SuperSweet Onions can grow as large as a grapefruit, weigh up to a pound apiece, and are so sweet and mild you can eat them straight out of the chute. Because 1015s are predominantly single-centered and measure three to four inches in diameter, they also make especially good onion rings. 

Texas Symbols
Sweet Onion
(Allium genus)
Adopted on May 7, 1997.
The sweet onion was adopted as Texas’ official state onion in 1997. The onion is a member of the pungent Allium genus of the lily family, which also includes garlic, leeks, shallots, and scallions. The word onion comes to us from the Latin unio (meaning large pearl), which in Middle English became unyon. Most commercially-grown are of the common or seed (A. cepa) variety.

The onion was considered as valuable as gold in the Middle Ages and has long been a symbol of eternity due to their structural composition of layers within layers forming a sphere. The onion has amazingly been the focus of some mighty strange legislation over the years. For example, in Nacogdoches, Texas, it’s against the law for “young women” to indulge in any raw onions after 6 pm!

Sweet onion varieties have been traced back to a packet of seeds from the Canary Islands shipped to South Texas in 1898. Those Bermuda onion seeds were planted near the city of Cotulla. The sweet onion crop was an instant success. The onions were shipped in 1899 to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where they were so enthusiastically received that a larger acreage was planted.

By 1904, approximately 500 acres of Bermuda onions were planted in South Texas. In spring, 1907, 1,011 carloads of onions were shipped from South and Southwest Texas; in 1908, production had more than doubled, and in 1909, 12 counties shipped 2,920 carloads. Shipments reached 6,735 carloads in 1917; this figure was not exceeded until 1928 and 1929 when the total movements were 7,055 and 7,232 carloads, respectively. The largest movement in 50 years for a single season was 10,164 carloads in 1946.

In 1933, the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station began a cooperative breeding program with the U. S. Department of Agriculture to develop new hybrids and varieties.

The Canary Islands, principally Teneriffe Island, produced most of the onion seed planted in Texas until about 1946. The two types of Bermuda onions generally grown in Texas were the Yellow Bermuda and White Bermuda and Crystal Wax.

Texas 1015s, the Lone Star State’s most famous onions, taste sweet. They don’t make you cry either because they contain very little of a substance called pyruvate, which is released during chopping, causing tears. According to the onion’s developer, Dr. Leonard Pike, of the Texas A&M Vegetable Improvement Center, 1015s mild taste makes them perfect for salads and sandwiches.

ONIONS are Texas’ leading vegetable crop. Onion sales bring the state between $70 and $100 million per year and the onion industry has an overall impact of about $350 million per year on the Texas economy. Most of the sweet yellow onions, which people all over the world enjoy because you can “eat them like an apple”, can trace their origin to the Lone Star state.

What does the “1015” mean?
That’s the best date to plant it, October 15.

Texas Legislature
HOUSE CONCURRENT RESOLUTION
By Wise H.C.R. No. 148
WHEREAS, The State of Texas has traditionally recognized a variety of official state symbols as tangible representations of the proud spirit and heritage of our state; and

WHEREAS, The bluebonnet, the pecan tree, and the mockingbird are just a few examples of specimens that exemplify the great diversity of the Texas landscape, while the red grapefruit, our state fruit, represents yet another aspect of our shared culture; and

WHEREAS, In keeping with this custom, the designation of the Texas sweet onion as the Official State Vegetable of Texas will provide suitable recognition for this outstanding food; and

WHEREAS, The well-known 1015 variation of this onion is recognized by gourmet chefs and culinary experts from around the world for its characteristic sweetness and its inherent properties that inhibit tearing of the eyes; it has been carefully nurtured and perfected over time and is renowned for its exceptional flavor and well-documented nutritive qualities; and

WHEREAS, The Lone Star State’s reputation as a global leader in the development of various varietals of vegetables is well deserved, and the creation of the 1015 onion as the first sweet onion in the world has contributed greatly to this proud legacy; and

WHEREAS, The Texas sweet onion is as distinctive as the state from which it originates and it will no doubt serve as a fitting emblem for the bounties of nature with which our state is blessed; now, therefore, be it

RESOLVED, That the 75th Legislature of the State of Texas hereby designate the Texas sweet onion as the Official State Vegetable of Texas and recognize the historic and cultural significance of this native herb.

Sweet Onion Source
Texas Sweets - SpringSweets & Texas 1015s
SpringSweets are the first spring sweet onions in the marketplace, debuting in March; the 1015s arrive in mid-April. The 1015, developed in the early 1980s by Dr. Leonard Pike, a professor of horticulture at Texas A & M University, is named for its suggested planting date, October 15. Nicknamed the “million-dollar baby” because of the money spent to develop it.

Availability: March to mid-June

Leonard Pike - Texas Sweet Onion King
by Jan Roberts-Dominguez, Onion Expert

In many ways, Dr. Leonard Pike is like a lot of other professors in this country: too busy to reach very easily by phone on most days, and totally absorbed in his research.

But this Texas A & M University faculty member has one singular distinction: he developed one of the nation’s most famous sweet onions, the Texas 1015Y.

Because I was curious about the man behind this primo culinary phenomenon that graces millions of kitchens every year from mid-April through June, I gave him a call. What’s it like to have created this famous onion, I pondered?

“Never did I dream that I’d be known for onions,” he chuckled. “You just don’t think of people being known the whole world over because they worked with a certain type of crop. I’ve traveled to India, Russia, Germany, France, Australia, and England. And everybody knows about the 1015.”

And Dr. Pike, of course. Which shows you how much people love onions. Especially Texans. In fact, onions are the Lone Star State’s leading vegetable crop. Sales reach $100 million per year, and the overall impact on the Texas economy has been estimated to be about $350 million per year.

Pike received his Ph.D. in Horticulture in 1967 from Michigan State University and came to Texas A&M to work on cucumbers and carrots. At least that’s what he thought at the time.

“But the onion industry people heard that I had worked on onions,” said Pike, “so they called me in one day and said, ‘We’ve got a lot of problems with our onions, and we’d like to know if you’d be willing to work on onions.’ “

Pike said he could do that, but that it would take money and time.

The onion folks said, “How much?”

Pike took a wild guess. They wrote him a check, “And that’s how I got started,” the plant geneticist explained.

Twenty-nine years later, the original 5-year grant they established for his research is still going strong.

The most famous sweet and juicy result of Pike’s research, which was released in 1983, gets its name from its ideal planting date, October 15. Pike went this route to simplify matters during planting, he explained. “The most confusing thing to do to a bunch of growers is to release an onion and say, ‘Wait a minute, you gotta plant this one on this date, and this one on this date, and this one on this date.’ because you know that’s just asking too much.”

Among all of the onion varieties released that year, the 1015 stood out because of its superior qualities. Aside from its technical pluses, such as disease resistance, it had a great onion flavor, but, as Pike stated, “wouldn’t cause tears to run and drip off your cheek.”

However, growers and shippers felt that it needed a catchier name. A committee was formed, a “Name The Onion” contest held, and the 1015 suddenly had a new name. “It was something like the Texas SuperSweet,” said Pike.

But the next year, when the crop was coming to market, the growers started asking the onion buyers how many of the Texas SuperSweets they could sell. “None,” said the buyers. “We want the 1015.”

The industry learned a valuable lesson that year and nobody has fiddled with the name again. If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.

© 1999 Jan Roberts-Dominguez

Texas A&M
Leonard M. Pike
Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences
Director, Vegetable Improvement Center
Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2133

Leonard Pike received his B.S. and M.S. in Horticulture from the University of Arkansas in 1962 and 1964, respectively. He received his Ph.D. in Horticulture in 1967 from Michigan State University. Dr. Pike is a Member of the Graduate Faculty of Texas A&M University, and can serve as a Chair, Co-chair or Member of Graduate Student Advising Committees.

Dr. Pike’s research interests include plant genetics, breeding, biochemistry, physiology, pathology, nutrition and health. He has developed numerous cultivars that are grown worldwide. Currently, emphasis is on genetic improvement of vegetables with high levels of naturally occurring chemicals providing health benefits in our diet. He teaches a graduate course in commercial seed production.

“My philosophy to advising graduate students is to present problems which need research, let them choose one that interests them, then challenge them to solve it. I believe good students will do excellent research without a lot of guidance and learn by having to think and search for answers. I am always willing to help, but never attempt to think for the student. Good students must learn by observing, asking questions, reading and working in the research program.”

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS
“Onion Breeding.” 1986. L.M. Pike. In Vegetable Breeding. Mark J. Bassett (ed.). AVI Publishing.
“‘Texas Grano 1015Y’, a mild pungency, sweet, shortday onion.” 1988. L.M. Pike. HortScience 23:634-635.
“Cucumbers.” 1988. L.M. Pike. In Detecting Mineral Nutrient Deficiencies in Tropical and Temperate Crops. Westview Press.
“A tissue culture technique for the asexual clonal propagation of genetic-cytoplasmic male sterile and/or other onion lines.” 1989. L.M. Pike and K.S. Yoo. Scientia Horticulturae 45:31-36.
“A comparison between bags and boxes for shipping Texas short-day onions.” 1989. L.M. Pike, K.S. Yoo and T.H. Camp. HortScience 24(4):631-632.

(OCLC WorldCat record)
Title: Onion varieties in Texas /
Author(s): Perry, Bruce A. 1909- (Bruce Allen),
Jones, Henry Albert,; b. 1889. 
Corp Author(s): Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Publication: College Station, Tex. : Texas Agricultural Experiment Station,
Year: 1957
Description: 10 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Series: Bulletin / Texas Agricultural Experiment Station ;; 854; Variation: Bulletin (Texas Agricultural Experiment Station) ;; 854.

(OCLC WorldCat record)
Title: Five new short day onion varieties for an expanded production season in Texas /
Author(s): Pike, Leonard M.
Leeper, Paul W. 
Corp Author(s): Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Publication: College Station, Tex. : Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, the Texas A & M University System,
Year: 1982
Description: 5 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
SUBJECT(S)
Descriptor: Onions—Varieties—Texas. 
Note(s): “MP-1514"/ Tx Doc no.: Z, TA245.7, M681, no. 1514/ Caption title.
Class Descriptors: LC: SB341
Responsibility: Leonard M. Pike and Paul Leeper.
Material Type: Government publication (gpb); State or province government publication (sgp)

(OCLC WorldCat record)
Title: Texas 1015 :
the biggest, sweetest, mildest, best-tasting onion in the world.
Corp Author(s): Texas.; Dept. of Agriculture. 
Publication: Austin, Tex. : Texas Dept. of Agriculture,
Year: 1988
Description: [6] p. : 1 ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
SUBJECT(S)
Descriptor: Onions—Varieties—Texas.
Cookery (Onions)
Note(s): Cover title.
Class Descriptors: GovDoc: A900.8 T312o 1988
Material Type: Government publication (gpb); State or province government publication (sgp)

25 May 1988, New York (NY) Times, “How Sweet They Are: Onions That Hardly Ever Bring a Tear” by Jeannette Ferrary, pg. C6:
At the center of all this merchandising are onions like the Texas Grano 1015Y Supersweet. It was developed in the early 1980’s by Dr. Leonard Pike, a professor of horticulture at Texas A&M University at College Station.

The 1015Y is named for its optimal planting date, Oct. 15; it is nicknamed the “million dollar baby,” however, because of the money spent to develop it. Some store have been known to dump other onions into the 1015Y containers and sell them as the real thing. To prevent this, Texas growers will be affixing an identifying sticker to each 1015Y onion.

Texas produces other sweet onions, which some growers prefer because they mature earlier and can be taken to market sooner. These include the Texas Granex, the Early Grano 502 and the Y33 Supersweet.

MySA.com
Texas sweet onions are long on taste and short on tears
Web Posted: 03/27/2007 06:39 PM CDT
Bonnie Walker
Express-News

The news is mostly sweet this week for lovers of Texas onions.

Texas SpringSweet Onions, the umbrella term that includes the Texas 1015 SuperSweet onions, are on their way up from the Valley, coming to a store near you soon.

Those sweet onions will probably cost more this year, however. Reduced acreage of planted onions as well as cyclical weather conditions have led to a drop in supply in Texas onions, says grower Darrell Duda, vice president of Duda Farm Fresh Foods in McAllen.

Also, South Texas’ overcast, rainy January was a factor leading to a two-week delay in this year’s harvest, Duda said. The onions usually are harvested in mid-March. But, Duda said Friday, “I’m just putting the knife to them now.”

On Sunday, some Texas sweet onions were available at the Super Target on Fredericksburg Road at Interstate 10 for 77 cents a pound. Mexican sweets are available in some stores, such as Central Market and Whole Foods, as well.

What are consumers looking at paying for the onions this year? Javier Morado, perishables director at Central Market, said Monday that consumers would be seeing a noticeable increase this year over the 99 cents a pound they paid last year. He explained that demand from other states, such as California, which had a bad crop this year, was putting more strain on the Texas supply.

According to the Texas Department of Agriculture, the Texas crop of onions, regular and sweet, comes to about $100 million per year. (The department doesn’t break out sales into sweet onions and regular onions.) Robert Maggiani, chief of marketing for the department, says onions are grown in the Valley, as well as in areas around Uvalde, and a smaller amount near Lubbock.

Sweet onions are the big, juicy bulbs that contain less pyruvate. This is the chemical that gives ordinary onions their strong flavor, the one responsible for making your eyes water when you cut into them.

Texas 1015 SuperSweet Onions are among the sweetest, mildest onions produced anywhere. Introduced to the South Texas onion industry in the mid ‘80s after a decade of research, this onion takes its name from its best plant-by date — Oct. 15.

All onions are low in calories, which is one good reason to include them in your diet, as well as the fact that they supply potassium and a bit of vitamin C. They also contain two compounds, allicin and sulforaphane, as well as the antioxidant quercetin. These are believed to lower the risk of certain cancers.

As onion lovers know, though, this flavorful member of the lily family is just good to eat. Slice it and add to salads and sandwiches; roast onions on the grill to add to fajita tacos or burgers.

For health reasons as well as for flavorful additions to your dishes, sweet onions are a great choice. Here are some tips for selecting and using them.

Texas 1015 SuperSweets are ideal for making large, uniform-sized onion rings. They also grow to softball-sized proportions, and can weigh in at a pound or more each. The optimum eating onion is 3-4 inches in diameter and weighs 14-16 ounces.

Look for onions with shiny, thin skins and tight, dry necks.

These onions have a high water content. When storing them, keep in a dry, well-ventilated place, either in a single layer or in netting. Stored properly, onions can last about 30 days after harvest.

Be sure to store cut onions in a covered container or zip-lock bag in the refrigerator.

One pound of Texas sweet onions equals about 5-6 cups onion rings and 21/2 cups chopped.

(Trademark)
Word Mark TEXAS SPRINGSWEET
Goods and Services IC 031. US 046. G & S: ONIONS. FIRST USE: 19840400. FIRST USE IN COMMERCE: 19840400
Mark Drawing Code (5) WORDS, LETTERS, AND/OR NUMBERS IN STYLIZED FORM
Serial Number 73618136
Filing Date September 4, 1986
Current Filing Basis 1A
Original Filing Basis 1A
Published for Opposition July 10, 1990
Registration Number 1615952
Registration Date October 2, 1990
Owner (REGISTRANT) SOUTH TEXAS ONION COMMITTEE GROWERS AND PRODUCERS COMMITTEE TEXAS 811 EAST PIKE BOULEVARD WESLACO TEXAS 78596
Attorney of Record JOHN D FADO
Disclaimer NO CLAIM IS MADE TO THE EXCLUSIVE RIGHT TO USE “TEXAS” APART FROM THE MARK AS SHOWN
Type of Mark COLLECTIVE TRADEMARK
Register PRINCIPAL
Affidavit Text SECT 15. SECT 8 (6-YR). SECTION 8(10-YR) 20010219.
Renewal 1ST RENEWAL 20010219
Live/Dead Indicator LIVE

(Trademark)
Word Mark TEXAS 1015
Goods and Services IC 031. US 046. G & S: FRESH ONIONS. FIRST USE: 19851100. FIRST USE IN COMMERCE: 19851100
Mark Drawing Code (1) TYPED DRAWING
Serial Number 73618079
Filing Date September 4, 1986
Current Filing Basis 1A
Original Filing Basis 1A
Published for Opposition October 13, 1987
Registration Number 1471573
Registration Date January 5, 1988
Owner (REGISTRANT) SOUTH TEXAS ONION COMMITTEE GROWERS AND PRODUCERS COMMITTEE TEXAS 901 BUSINESS PARK DRIVE, SUITE 500 MISSION TEXAS 78572
Attorney of Record JOHN D. FADO
Disclaimer NO CLAIM IS MADE TO THE EXCLUSIVE RIGHT TO USE “TEXAS” APART FROM THE MARK AS SHOWN
Type of Mark TRADEMARK
Register PRINCIPAL
Affidavit Text SECT 15. SECT 8 (6-YR). SECTION 8(10-YR) 20080114.
Renewal 1ST RENEWAL 20080114
Live/Dead Indicator LIVE

(Trademark)
Word Mark SUPERSWEET
Goods and Services IC 031. US 001 046. G & S: FRESH ONIONS. FIRST USE: 19851100. FIRST USE IN COMMERCE: 19851100
Mark Drawing Code (5) WORDS, LETTERS, AND/OR NUMBERS IN STYLIZED FORM
Serial Number 73699897
Filing Date December 9, 1987
Current Filing Basis 1A
Original Filing Basis 1A
Supplemental Register Date August 16, 1989
Registration Number 1587302
Registration Date March 13, 1990
Owner (REGISTRANT) SOUTH TEXAS ONION COMMITTEE GROWERS AND PRODUCERS COMMITTEE TEXAS 811 EAST PIKE BOULEVARD WESLACO TEXAS 78596
Attorney of Record JOHN D. FADO
Type of Mark TRADEMARK
Register SUPPLEMENTAL
Affidavit Text SECT 8 (6-YR). SECTION 8(10-YR) 20001201.
Renewal 1ST RENEWAL 20001201
Live/Dead Indicator LIVE

Posted by Barry Popik
Texas (Lone Star State Dictionary) • (0) Comments • Tuesday, March 18, 2008 • Permalink